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Additional resources for Advanced Containment Systems for Next-Gen Water Reactors (IAEA TECDOC-752)
Heated plate tests to examine the evaporating heat transfer of water from the steel surface of the containment and heat transfer with only air cooling. Containment external cooling air flow path pressure drop tests to characterize the hydraulic losses. Steam condensation heat transfer experiments on a flat cool surface at different angles of inclination to simulate the condensation on the inside of the containment in the presence of non-condensable gases. Additional tests which are currently being performed, or have just finished, are as follows: PCCS air flow path resistance test A 1/16-scale replica of a 14 degree section of the entire PCCS air flow path was constructed to qualify the cut flow path resistance to determine if aerodynamic improvement were needed, and demonstrate the effectiveness of these improvements.
Spreading of the core melt A sufficiently large area could be provided to allow the corium to spread into a coolable geometry. The corium is then flooded from the top. Understanding of the spreading behaviour of the corium is a very important prerequisite. 30 . Retention device A special retention device could catch the corium. The corium may be then flooded from the top and/or cooled from the bottom by natural circulation or active means. g. steam explosion, missiles). Airborne fission product (FP) reduction system The objective is to reduce the aerosol and iodine content in the containment atmosphere released from fuel damage or core degradation fast enough to minimize radioactivity release by containment leakages.
The detailed mechanistic codes tend to apply to a specific area of severe accident scenarios and model the relevant phenomena in detail. They can be applied to new systems and experiments. They also take longer to run in comparison with integral codes. The integral codes are used to make many calculations of different scenarios which would be prohibitively expensive for the detailed mechanistic analyses. The range of applicability of a given code depends on what it was designed for and what it is validated against.
Advanced Containment Systems for Next-Gen Water Reactors (IAEA TECDOC-752)