By Patricia Aspinall

ISBN-10: 0194534294

ISBN-13: 9780194534291

Combines systematic education in examination thoughts and thorough improvement of complex point language abilities.

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Examples are E /w, j , r/, D /j/ and types of D /r/ and D /$/. E /j/ and /w/ are like very short vowels, similar to brief versions of E /i:/ and E /u:/ respectively. Similarly, D /j/ is like a rapidly articulated D /i/. 2 EXERCISE 8 Say a D /i/ followed directly by D /a:/ in this way: [ia:]. If you say [i] quickly, you will end up with Dutch ja. Now try the same with /u/. If you say a rapid D /u/ followed by /Et/, you should end up with a sound close to E [w], and a word sounding like English wet.

The voiceless lateral fricative [ ] is more common, and occurs as a phoneme not only in Zulu and Xhosa, but also in Welsh, Icelandic and Burmese. g. hlaford ‘lord’. EXERCISE 10 In Welsh, / / is represented in the spelling by ll. Try saying these Welsh words which contain the voiceless lateral fricative: allt /a t/ ‘hillside’, allan / a an/ ‘out’, llaeth / aiθ/ ‘milk’, arall / a ra /, ‘other’, lle / e / ‘place’, llech / e x/ ‘stone’. EXERCISE 11 Just for fun, attempt a pronunciation of the longest Welsh place name, Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch [ an vairpυ DZwŋDZ DZo DZe rəxwərn drɔbυ antsljo DZo DZo DZo x] A similar sound, realised as a devoiced /l/ with weak friction (usually represented as [ l ]), also occurs as an allophone of E /l/, following fortis plosives, as in clean, play, atlas.

An alveolar tap, for instance, is the general realisation of /r/ in Noord-Holland and the north eastern provinces of the Netherlands and is also heard extensively in Belgium. 1 Many modern writers actually use the term ‘nasal stop’ for these sounds. 43 classification of consonants EXERCISE 5 Start off by making a bilabial trill. This is the sort of noise we use to show that we feel cold. It is often shown in print as brrr. g. Ngwe, spoken in Cameroun). Look in a mirror as you say it, and you will be able to see as well as feel the rapid percussive action of the lips.

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Advanced Masterclass CAE: Workbook by Patricia Aspinall

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