By S. Tanvir Wasti, Guney Ozcebe
Earthquakes affecting city components can result in catastrophic occasions and possibility mitigation calls for preparatory measures in any respect degrees. Structural evaluate is the prognosis of the seismic health and wellbeing of constructions. review is the prelude to judgements approximately rehabilitation or maybe demolition. the size of the matter in dense city settings brings a few want for macro seismic appraisal techniques simply because huge numbers of current constructions don't agree to the elevated requisites of recent earthquake codes and necessities or produce other deficiencies. it's the susceptible constructions - susceptible to reason harm and demise - that desire rapid awareness and pressing appraisal so that it will come to a decision if structural rehabilitation and upgrading are possible. present financial, effective and occupant-friendly rehabilitation suggestions differ generally and comprise the applying both of precast concrete panels or layers, strips and patches of fiber strengthened polymers (FRP) in strategic destinations. The papers during this publication, many through popular experts in earthquake engineering, chart new and very important instructions of study and alertness within the evaluation and rehabilitation of structures in seismic areas. whereas numerous papers speak about the probabilistic prediction and quantification of structural harm, others current ways similar with the in-situ and occupant pleasant upgrading of structures and suggest either reasonable and sensible options to handle the matter.
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Additional info for Advances in Earthquake Engineering for Urban Risk Reduction (NATO Science Series: IV: Earth and Environmental Sciences)
The test results for concrete-jacketed Q-type columns show that RC jacketing of old-type columns with smooth bars increases their deformation capacity to levels sufficient for earthquake resistance, irrespectively of the presence and length of lap splicing. Previous damage of the old column by cyclic loading beyond its peak resistance does not reduce the effectiveness of the jacket. The results of the present tests, combined with those of previous studies (see section 3), also show that concrete-jacketed old-type columns with smooth bars behave very similarly to a monolithic column with the same geometry and reinforcement as the jacket, almost irrespectively of any special measures to improve the connection of the jacket with the old concrete.
This does not result in a great deal of hassle because the owners are given the option to rebuild or not to rebuild. If they want to rebuild, they get low-interest 30-year loans from a special fund set up for that purpose. Ali Ihsan Bey believes that the initial capital for this purpose, not likely to exceed four billion euros, could be raised by joint efforts of the Turkish Republic and the World Bank. After a few years, the fund would be self-sustaining. What happens to those who do not wish to rebuild?
SUGANO Damage Index D 100 80 60 Damage Level D҈50 Major D=10~50 Medium D=5~10 Minor Light D<5 N=167 Present Building Standard Law Major Damage 40 1981 20 0 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Construction Year Figure 1. Damage to reinforced concrete school buildings in Kobe City (Architectural Institute of Japan, 1997). The Kobe Earthquake significantly changed the feature of seismic rehabilitation of existing reinforced concrete buildings. The number of implementations of seismic rehabilitation has been clearly increasing after this earthquake.
Advances in Earthquake Engineering for Urban Risk Reduction (NATO Science Series: IV: Earth and Environmental Sciences) by S. Tanvir Wasti, Guney Ozcebe