By Robert Shenk

ISBN-10: 1612510531

ISBN-13: 9781612510538

Drawing seriously on formerly unknown assets, Robert Shenk deals a revealing portrait of America's small Black Sea Fleet within the years following global struggle I. Home-ported in Constantinople, military ships sped to the Crimea to assist evacuate a few 150,000 White Russians, after which coordinated the grain shipments that ended a bad Russian famine. The fleet's successes in evacuating approximately 200,000 ethnic Armenian and Greek refugees from Smyrna and in rescuing tens of hundreds of thousands from mainland Turkey also are precise in complete. Shenk's incisive depiction of Admiral Mark Bristol as either head of U.S. naval forces and the United States s leader diplomat within the area William Leahy, Thomas Kinkaid, Julian Wheeler, and diplomat Allen Dulles served less than him aid to make this publication the first-ever finished account of an essential, yet little-known naval venture.

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42 Fighting-ships of the Middle Ages We works must not therefore accept these brilliantly coloured of art as corroborative of the accuracy of the figures of ships appearing on the seals of Dover, Yarmouth, Poole, and other English and foreign ports, and in the fifteenth century of various noblemen who held the appointment of Admiral of England or France. a great many of information. tion of the But there are, nevertheless, useful details to be learned from these sources From seals we can trace the gradual evolu- poop and forecastle from the early platforms or fighting-stages, the supersession of the steering-oar or " steer- board" by the rudder, the beginning of cabins, the progress and action aloft.

M^^: Fifteenth-century Ship (From a painting by Carpaccio) Observe the capacious hull, the heavy mast, the way the sail is made fast in the middle as well as by the sheets at the corners, the crane for hoisting missiles to the top, and the darts ranged round it also the way the main-yard is spliced in the middle. ; thing for the whole of the big square mainsail of a "cog" with the arms of her owner. This is clearly shown in the well-known manuscript Life of the Earl of Warwick, by John Rous. Generally sails, often themselves to be decorated 47 The British Navy Book and material, were adorned with badges or devices, but sometimes merely with stripes of difColour ran riot in the war-vessels of our ferent colours.

To begin with, they were all " soldiers and sailors too " They were equally at home on the battle-field ashore and in han! dling their cherished " long-ships " afloat. The Scandinavians went at believed that the soul of a warrior killed in battle once to Valhalla, which represented their idea of heaven. There they confidently expected that the brave fighter would spend a happy eternity of fighting and feasting. It is said that their remote forefathers had brought this weird form of belief from the depths of Central Asia but that must be a very old story.

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America's Black Sea Fleet: The U.S. Navy Amidst War and Revolution, 1919-1923 by Robert Shenk


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