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THERE CAN BE NO CONFIDENCE IN THE TRANSMISSION OF DHARMA BY A PERSON OTHER THAN ISVARA : 306, 1—3 The opponent (Sämkhyin) argues that, since Kapila etc. who have acquired omniscience through Yoga and religious rites are enough to explain the transmission of the Veda, there is no need of an Isvara as the teacher of the Veda. 306, 3—308, 4 The answer of Udayana: a) Even if Kapila etc. possess the power of intuition (bhävanä), still it does not produce genuine immediate vision (säksätkärah), and hence people will not have confidence (or certainty) in a Veda of which Kapila etc.

Cf. The'Kusumänjali, pp. x—xi. ^ 3. ANALYSIS OF THE NYÄYAKUSUMÄNJALI* STABAKA I 2} 2—40, 2 INTRODUCTORY PART 2,1—6, 2 11,1—12, 1 Dedicatory verse. The theme dealt with in this book, namely the Supreme Soul (paramätmä). Reason for the logical discussion on Isvara: Despite the fact that Isvara is acknowledged by all philosophical schools and religious sects under some name or other, this study which is to be designated as reflection (mananam) is made as an act of worship (upäsanä) that comes after the listening to the scriptures (sravanam).

Now, one of the difficulties in studying this work is that of tracing exactly the particular opponent with whom he is engaged in arguing or whose views he occasionally refers to. In a few cases he does mention the school of thinkers against whom his arguments are directed. In most cases, one who is well acquainted with the works of the different Indian philosophical thinkers 75 Ibid. 351, 2: yatränukülatarko nästi so ^prayojakah. Cf. ; NKus 456, 1—3; Kir 103, 6—8; 138, 14—17. In NKus 500, 1—o Udayana rejects the pratikülatarkäh of the opponents as tarkäbhäsäh and_brings forward an anukulatarkah which is said to be a bhüsanam for the proof of Isvara.

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An Indian Rational Theology - Introduction to Udayana's Nyayakusumanjali by G. Chemparathy


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